World's Most Expensive Structures

CountDown: The 30 most costly structures on the planet

Ponder which world-well known structures cost the most cash to build? From super-tall high rises to unimaginably rich clubhouse resorts, we uncover the world's most costly structures at any point, balanced for swelling.

The priciest structures on the planet

30. Burj Khalifa, Dubai: $1.7 billion (£1.2bn)

Remaining at a stomach-beating 2,722 feet (830m) high, Dubai's Burj Khalifa is pass on the tallest structure on the planet, however it isn't even the most costly working in Dubai. Finished in 2009 at a cost of $1.5 billion (£1.1bn), Burj Khalifa is just the 30th most expensive structure on the planet.


29. Seat of the European Central Bank, Frankfurt: $1.7 billion (£1.2bn)

Tormented by a progression of development issues and postponements, the new Seat of the European Central Bank in Frankfurt went hugely finished spending plan, with the aggregate cost of the high rise complex hitting $1.6 billion (£1.2bn) upon its fruition in 2013.

28. Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur: $1.8 billion (£1.3bn)

Kuala Lumpur's terrific twin towers were the tallest structures on the planet from 1998 to 2004. Planned by Argentine engineer Cesar Pelli, the couple cost around $1.2 billion (£863m) to build amid the late 1990s.

27. Wembley Stadium, London: $1.8 billion (£1.3bn)

The primary stadium on the planet with a sticker price in abundance of $1 billion (£719m), Wembley Stadium in North London cost an aggregate of $1.5 billion (£1.1bn) to assemble. Finished in 2006, the notorious home of English soccer seats 90,000 onlookers and is delegated by a noticeable curve.

26. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong: $1.9 billion (£1.4bn)

The Bank of China Tower is one of Hong Kong's most conspicuous structures and at 1,033.5 feet (315 meters) high, the main super-tall high rise to be worked outside the US. Eye-watering at the time, the development charge for the building totaled $1 billion (£719m) in 1990.

25. Kyoto Station, Kyoto: $2 billion (£1.4bn)

Kyoto's eponymous end contains a 15-story fabricating that houses everything from an inn to a retail chain. In any case, the world's most costly railroad station, which was finished in 1997 at a cost of $1.3 billion (£935m), is just Japan's second-biggest after Nagoya Station.

24. The Palazzo, Las Vegas: $2.1 billion (£1.5bn)

The Palazzo club resort in Las Vegas is the biggest lodging on the planet, the second greatest working in the Western Hemisphere and Sin City's tallest structure. Finished in 2007, the lavish resort set back speculators a cool $1.8 billion (£1.3bn).

23. Illustrious Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide: $2.1 billion (£1.5bn)

Real doctor's facilities don't come shabby, however the Royal Adelaide Hospital in Adelaide, South Australia is by a wide margin the priciest at any point manufactured. The 800-bed uber healing facility, the greatest Down Under, opened its entryways in September, 17 months behind timetable and countless dollars over-spending plan.

22. Trump Taj Mahal, Atlantic City: $2.3 billion (£1.7bn)

Once portrayed by Donald Trump as "the eighth ponder of the world", the Taj Mahal inn and clubhouse in Atlantic City cost $1.2 billion (£930m) to work in 1990. The blingy 120,000 square foot complex in the long run ended up unrewarding and close for good in October 2016, yet has since revived as the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino.

21. Parliament House, Canberra: $2.3 billion (£1.7bn)

Australia's present parliament building was worked in 1988 at a cost of $1.1 billion (£793m). The advanced structure, which is composed in the state of two boomerangs and beat by a forcing flagpole, contains upwards of 4,700 rooms.

20. Tapei 101, Tapei: $2.3 million (£1.7bn)

Tapei 101 was the world's tallest working from 2004 to 2009, when it was usurped by Dubai's Burj Khalifa. The postmodern high rise, which easily mixes customary and contemporary styles, cost $1.8 billion (£1.3bn) to fabricate.



19. Antilia, Mumbai: $2.3 billion (£1.7bn)The most costly private living arrangement on the planet, Antilia is the Mumbai home of extremely rich person Mukesh Ambani. The super-gaudy 27-story tower was finished in 2010, and is thought to have set its proprietor back an enormous $2 billion (£1.4bn).

18. 200 West Street, New York: $2.4 billion (£1.7bn)

Venture bank Goldman Sachs' worldwide central command was never going to be a spending issue, and the speculation organization was the envy of Wall Street when its rich $2.1 billion (£1.5bn) head office opened in its entryways in 2010.


17. Bellagio, Las Vegas: $2.4 billion (£1.7bn)

The aggregate development charge for MGM's Bellagio gambling club resort in Las Vegas came to $1.6 billion (£1.2bn) in 1998, which compares to around $2.4 billion (£1.7bn) in the present cash. The resort brags 3,950 rooms and sections of land of gaming space.



16. Princess Tower, Dubai: $2.4 billion (£1.7bn)

Dubai's most expensive building and its second tallest structure after the Burj Khalifa, the Princess Tower is additionally the tallest private working on the planet. The $2.2 billion (£1.6bn) tower was finished in 2012.


15. Shanghai Tower, Shanghai: $2.5 billion (£1.8bn)

Standing 2,073 feet (632 meters) high, Shanghai's twisty pinnacle brags a wide range of superlatives, from the world's speediest lifts to the most noteworthy perception deck on the planet. It opened in 2014, having taken a toll $2.4 billion (£1.7bn).

14. Yankee Stadium, New York: $2.6 billion (£1.9bn)

The substitution Yankee Stadium in New York cost $2.3 billion (£1.7bn) to build in 2009, making it the most costly stadium at any point assembled. Questionably, a weighty $1.2 billion (£863m) of open cash helped support the task.


13. The Shard, London: $2.6 billion (£1.9bn)

Renzo Piano's 1,016 feet (310m) perfect work of art has been the EU's tallest working since its fulfillment in 2012. The cost of the whole improvement, which included patching up regions around London Bridge Station, totaled around $2.4 billion (£1.7bn).



12. City of Dreams, Macao: $2.7 billion (£2bn)

The City of Dreams is the second biggest resort and club complex in Macao. Opening to people in general in 2009, the smooth complex, which includes a colossal aquarium and air pocket wellspring among different attractions, cost $2.4 billion (£1.7bn) to manufacture.

11. Venetian Macao, Macao: $3 billion (£2.2bn)

Remaining in Macao, next up is the independent domain's biggest resort and gambling club complex, the $2.4 billion (£1.7bn) Venetian Macao. Arranged inverse the City of Dreams, the 39-story tower, which is displayed on its partner in Las Vegas, was finished in 2005.

10. Istana Nurul Iman Palace, Brunei: $3.3 billion (£2.4bn)

Worked in 1984 at a cost of $1.4 billion (£1bn), the Sultan of Brunei's educational home is the biggest royal residence on the planet that is still being used as an imperial living arrangement. The complex contains an aggregate of 1,788 rooms, including a banqueting corridor that can situate 5,000 visitors.

9. Wynn Resort, Las Vegas, $3.4 billion (£2.4bn)

One of the swankiest lodging and club buildings in Las Vegas, the Wynn resort propelled in 2005. The development charge for this extravagance 2,716-room complex hit $2.7 billion (£1.9bn), around $3.4 billion (£2.4bn) in the present cash.

8. Emirates Palace, Abu Dhabi: $3.8 billion (£2.7bn)

A lodging instead of a regal habitation, the Emirates Palace in Dubai is astoundingly lofty. Finished in 2005 at a cost of $3 billion (£2.2bn), the Kempinski-worked lodging has a sum of 394 living arrangements, also two spas, an enormous assembly hall, and scores of shops and eateries.

7. Castle of the Parliament, Bucharest: $3.9 billion (£2.8bn)

A huge number of specialists kicked the bucket and swathes of Bucharest were crushed to clear a path for Romanian despot Nicolae CeauČ™escu's huge Palace of the Parliament, which sprawls more than many sections of land. The development of the building, which started in 1984, cost an aggregate of $3.9 billion (£2.8bn) in the present cash.

6. One World Trade Center, New York: $4.1 billion (£2.9bn)

One World Trade Center is the essential working in the remade World Trade complex in New York. Standing an emblematic 1,776 feet (541m) tall, the high rise was finished in 2012 at a cost of $3.8 billion (£2.7bn), which is $4.1 billion (£2.9bn) today, and is presently the tallest working in the Americas.

5. The Cosmopolitan, Las Vegas: $4.4 billion (£3.2bn)

The 3,027-room Cosmopolitan cost an eye-watering $3.9 billion (£2.8bn) to work in 2009. The workmanship themed lodging and gambling club includes two skyscraper towers and houses everything from a 3,200-situate theater to a colossal spa and wellness focus.


4. Apple Park, Cupertino: $5 billion (£3.6bn)

Apple is the wealthiest organization on the planet with more extra money than numerous creating nations, so it's just characteristic the firm would draw billions into its gleaming new HQ in Cupertino, California. The grounds, which opened last April, cost an expected $5 billion (£3.6bn) altogether.


3. Marina Bay Sands, Singapore: $6.2 billion (£4.5bn)

Singapore's shocking Marina Bay Sands complex wows with the world's most amazing vastness pool, the biggest chamber clubhouse at any point constructed, a 2,561-room lavish inn, and significantly more other than. The point of interest complex was finished in 2010 at a cost of $5.5 billion (£4bn).


2. Abraj Al Bait, Mecca: $16 billion (£11.5bn)
Towering over Mecca, the Abraj Al Bait is a complex of seven skyscrapers that were built in 2012 at a cost of $15 billion (£10.8bn) to house pilgrims performing the Hajj. The complex is spread out over 34 acres and features the world's largest clock face.


1. Masjid al-Haram, Mecca: $100 billion (£72.1bn)

Islam's most sacrosanct site and the biggest mosque on the planet, the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, which covers 99 sections of land and can oblige up to four million individuals amid the Hajj, is assessed to have fetched a giant $100 billion (£72.1bn) altogether.
Share:

The 8 most luxurious private jets in the world

Dining room of a Boeing Private Jet

Private-fly creators like Gulfstream, Bombardier, and Embraer are taking their lead contributions higher than ever of extravagance, innovation, and execution. 

However, a few clients have chosen to change over business carriers from Airbus and Boeing for private utilize.

The cost of these air ship ranges from several millions to a huge number of dollars.

With regards to private planes, there are some that are notably better than the rest.

Nowadays, a select fortunate few are taking extravagance air travel higher than ever with best in class ultra-long-run official planes from makers, for example, Gulfstream and Bombardier. And afterward there are those sufficiently intense to change over business carriers into extravagant flying castles.

It's all extremely great.

So we at WealthResort have amassed what we accept to be a gathering of the most lavish private airplane on the planet. Normally, this rundown is liquid and subject to change — all things considered, Elon Musk may astonish every one of us one day with a pimped-out SpaceX Crew Dragon case mounted on a Falcon Heavy rocket, or an organization like Zunum Aero could give us an electric private stream.

However, for the time being, at any rate, here are the seven most lavish private streams on the planet, as per WealthResort.

1. Embraer Legacy 500: Unlike, alternate streams on this rundown, the Embraer Legacy 500 is a fair size plane intended to work shorter courses. At "just" $20 million, it's likewise the most reasonable of the eight planes.

In any case, that doesn't mean its client insides are anything to laugh at. The lodge is fixed with rich cowhide and custom wood facade.

While its floors are secured with fine covers and sparkling stonework.

As indicated by Embraer, the Legacy 500 has the roomiest lodge in its class and the special case that enables travelers to stand up without the need of a footwell running along the center of the plane.

2. Gulfstream G500: At $44 million, the G500 isn't Gulfstream's most costly offering, yet it is the freshest. It's relied upon to enter benefit in the not so distant future.

The G500 highlights bespoke lodges with seating custom-made to the necessities of the client.

The flying machine likewise has rapid web that is 30 times as quick as that of its present rivals.

3. Gulfstream G650ER: At $66.5 million, the G650ER is Gulfstream's lead item. It has a scope of in excess of 7,500 miles, which means it can finish flights over the Pacific Ocean.

The flying machine is pressed with rich calfskins, fine wood facade, and smart stonework.

The whole custom lodge can be controlled utilizing a cell phone application.

4. Bombardier Global 7000: Like the G650ER, the Global 7000 is intended to be a definitive long-remove, reason manufactured private stream. The $73 million air ship is set to enter benefit in the second 50% of this current year.

The lodge can be designed in an assortment of ways, incorporating a with full lounge area ...

... what's more, a mixed media theater.

The Global 7000 is even accessible with a private room. It's an imperative choice, given the plane's more than 8,500-mile go — that implies constant from New York to Sydney, Australia.

5. Embraer Lineage 1000E: This is the first of the changed over aircrafts on the rundown. It depends on the prevalent Embraer E190 local aircraft.

The extensive $53 million 1000E can be designed with a main room and a stroll in shower.

On the off chance that you are additional striking, in any case, Embraer's outline boss, Jay Beever, will happily offer you a portion of his genuinely finished the-top inside ideas — like the Kyoto Airship and its surprising bay windows ...

... or on the other hand the Hollywood Airship, which passes on the style, marvelousness, and extravagance of Tinseltown in the 1930s.

6. Airbus ACJ319Neo: The ACJ, or Airbus Corporate Jet, is the business form of the Airbus A319neo aircraft.

The ACJ319neo costs $101.5 million preceding the establishment of custom inside fittings. The stream has a scope of almost

7,800 miles and can fly relentless from Los Angeles to Geneva, Switzerland.

7. Boeing 787-8 BBJ: This is a best in class, $224 million carbon-composite aircraft. In 2016, China's HNA Group spent an extra $100 million to transform one into a private stream — or, as Boeing calls it, a BBJ, or Boeing Business Jet.

It's the brainchild of Kestrel Aviation Management's Stephen Vella. Since this is the primary Boeing Dreamliner reason worked to be a private stream, the inside, and its fittings must be exclusively built starting with no outside help.

The inside is an incredible 2,400 square feet. That implies space for you and 39 of your dearest companions.

There's additionally an ace suite with a California lord bed, a stroll in storage room ...

... also, an ace shower with a twofold size shower and warmed marble floors.

8. Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental BBJ: As dazzling as the Dreamliner might be, nothing contrasts and the "Ruler of the Skies." One fortunate client got his own one of a kind customized Boeing 747-8I private stream. At the current year's costs, the 747 preceding any customization work costs $403 million.

The inside brags almost 4,800 square feet of room, generally the same as your normal McMansion. The plane has a full office ...a room ...and a stately lounge area, which can be changed over into a corporate meeting room.
Share:

12 Most Luxurious Hotels In The Entire World

With regards to the best inns on the planet, there's extravagance and after that there's extravagance. In this post, we will discuss the most rich lodgings that fall into the last class. These are places where the lodging are second to none, the administration is far and away superior, and the surroundings are not at all like anything you could envision. Truly, tons of dollars have been put resources into the development of these spots.

Normally, you will locate a couple of spots that you may as of now be comfortable with, for example, the world's most costly inn and the world's most rich inn – they are not a similar inn! The Plaza in New York City? You can wager that is on the rundown. Similar to the Burj Al Arab Hotel – you know, the one that resembles a sailboat… But, there are some other of the most delightful inns on the planet on this rundown that you may have never known about. These happen to be the absolute most selective inns in the whole world, which is presumably by virtue of how much cash it expenses to remain at them.

In this way, on the off chance that you have a preference for the most sumptuous inns on the planet, you've gone to the correct place. Get ready to be acquainted with the most lavish (and most costly) inns in the whole world!

Finding the Best Hotels in the World

Obviously – it's about area. With inns, this is a window onto the level of administration and housing you will get. Truth be told, regardless of whether you remain in the most rich inn on the planet, there is something it doesn't offer and that depends on area, normally. For instance, a few inns are found right sincerely busy clamoring urban areas, while others are resorts that are far from everything. Nothing is impeccable, however these inns come close!

1. Mardan Palace Hotel (Turkey)

Costing great over a billion-and-a-half dollars, this sumptuous inn was brought about by one of Russia's acclaimed oligarchs, Telman Ismailov.

As you may envision, no cost has been saved as far as making a lavish domain, and there are more than 15 isolate bars to visit and that only one of numerous highlights which makes this inn conceivably the most extravagant inn on the planet.

2. The Westin Excelsior (Rome)

Rome is home to a portion of the finest inns on the planet, and numerous consider the Westin Excelsior to be the best of them.

The whole inn has been intended to drench its visitors in Roman extravagance, including innovative pleasantries to dazzling frescos; this blend of present day and antiquated makes this inn the Eternal City's contender for the respect of the world's most sumptuous inn.

3. CusinArt Golf Resort and Spa (Anguilla)

First of all: you must attempt the green at this inn. It was planned by the colossal Greg Norman.

Promotions

For Golfers, the Most Luxurious Hotel in the World!

Yet, in the event that golf's not your thing, at that point there's bounty to keep you possessed! What about there $10-million spa, for instance?

4. The Boulders (Arizona)

On the off chance that you need to fraternize with a portion of the world's wealthiest individuals, at that point you'll need to book a stay here at one of the world's most rich inns.

For Nature Lovers, the World's Most Luxurious Hotel

It's worked around an a huge number of years old shake arrangement, and it will allow you to encounter Arizona's condition at its finest.

5. Akademie Street Boutique Hotel and Guesthouse (South Africa)

Ultra selective and ultra lavish, this staggering property will give you the experience of life in the South African wide open and is the world's most costly lodging to leave South Africa.

While you're getting a charge out of the surroundings you'll never need for anything, because of the all around adulated and venerated benefit.

6. Atlantis Paradise (Bahamas)

This is the granddaddy of resorts in the whole world, gloating everything from a club to a waterslide that dives you into a passage underneath sharks.
Taking up an entire island, this is unmistakably extraordinary compared to other inns on the planet.

Caribbean Flavor at One of Its Most Luxurious Hotels

In the event that you chose to book a stay here, at that point we have one recommendation for you: be set up for an attack on the faculties.

7. Al Maha Desert Resort (Dubai)

In the event that the Burj Al Arab Hotel is excessively for you (it's later on the rundown), at that point maybe you'll appreciate the restrictive protection of this property since it is a standout amongst the most extravagant inns on the planet.

Dubai – Home to Many of the Most Luxurious Hotels in the World

It includes a staggering area in the betray, and each room is equipped with basically anything you would ever need for.

8. Emirates Palace (Abu Dhabi)

When you spend over $3 billion on an inn, you can wager it will be a standout amongst the most sumptuous on the planet.

The World's Most Expensive Hotel

Bragging a sum of 394 suites and guestrooms, guests to this sumptuous inn will welcome the several excellent crystal fixtures that hang all over the place.

9. The Plaza (New York City)

With regards to well known New York City lodgings, the Plaza is A-Number-One Duke of New York… And in light of current circumstances!

Every last bit of this inn is affectionately designated, and it allows every visitor to encounter what life was life for the immense monopolists of old America.

10. Palms (Las Vegas)

Rapidly, the Palms in Las Vegas has turned into a hotspot for traveling Los Angeles moguls and VIPs.

Given the sheer measure of extravagance comforts accessible there, alongside the gathering scene, it's straightforward why.

11. Mystery Marquis (Los Cabos)

Los Cabos is delightful, and the Secret Marquis has the best area there, and also the most extravagance.

While you're remaining here, it's conceivable you may have the capacity to wave hi to George Clooney, who possesses an estate nearby.

12. Burj Al Arab Hotel (Dubai)

When you see a photo of Dubai, you can wager that this sail-formed lodging will be conspicuously highlighted. The blend of style and extravagance makes it outstanding amongst other inns on the planet.

Among the Most Beautiful Hotels in the World

The inn is made up totally of lavish suites, and you may never need to leave its grounds given all the innovative civilities it gives and as you're checking out you'll see you're in a standout amongst the most delightful inns on the planet.
Share:

Modern Biotechnology: Ethical Issues, Ethical Principles and Guidelines

INTRODUCTION 

Scientists have used  biotechnology  for  centuries to enhance the production, availability and  quality of food  and  medicine.  Some conventional biotechnology techniques that  has been documented  for  decades includes  the  use  of microorganism in  fermentation to make bread, wine or applying rennin  to make cheese  (Propst 1996; FAO 2001).  However within recent times, the development of modern  biotechnology  has involved powerful  new techniques  better  known as Molecular Biology  that allows scientists to  tackle  the  previous  goals with more finesse and speed  such  as  recombinant  DNA and genetic engineering,  cell fusion, bioprocess and structurally-based molecular design.  Given that the technology  is new, has immense  potential,  is rapidly  developing, and  can be applied  to  all living  beings,  it can be used  for  beneficial purposes  but there  are also  risks (Macer  2006). It  is a sophisticated technology  that  needs advanced laboratory  facilities and  particular environmental  conditions that  require investment. Modern biotechnology  has been  particularly  successfully  used and applied  in food, agriculture,  medicine  and  pharmacy. 

Because modern  biotechnology is  still considered as a  new technology and the advancement in  these areas  have been  so  rapid,  it  has been  the  object  of some  doubts, fears,  concerns as well as  an  intense  and divisive  debate  worldwide on the potential risks  to  human health,  the  environment and  society. Modern biotechnology  has  been  classified as  a complex emerging issue  that exhibits high  salience  combined with limited knowledge  on  part of  the  public. Jacques Diouf, the  FAO Director-General, in  the  foreword  of the  FAO Ethic  Series (FAO 2001),  mentioned that technological advances and  organizational changes affecting  food and  agriculture systems  over  the past years  have  been  both radical and rapid; their repercussions, however, will  be  felt for  a long time  to come  and, in  many  cases, the consequences may  be  irreversible.  Science continues to  broaden  our  horizons,  offering  us new options that  invariably  give rise to  controversy.  The introduction  of  genetically  modified organisms  (GMOs) into  the  environment  has  become  highly  controversial  worldwide. Many consumer, environmental  groups  and  some scientists  (Bernauer  &  Meins 2001; Regal 1994;  Ho  1998/1999; Fagan  2000) have voiced strong concerns over  the immediate  and long term effects of  GMOs on  human health  and environment. Broader social, ethical, religious,  and  economic issues  associated with biotechnology has  also  been raised  (Thompson 1997;  BABAS 1999). According to  Batalion  (2000), the  central problem underlying biotechnology is  not  just its short-term  benefits and  long  term drawbacks, but  the overall  attempt to ‘control’ living nature  on  an  erroneous mechanistic  view.  We as human  have conscience and religious belief. Many religions  do  not allow unrestricted interference with life  such as genetic  engineering (Epstein  1998).  The  pace  of  discovery  in  geneticbased biotechnology is very rapid and there is anxiety that a  kind  of  technological compulsion  (‘if we can  do  it,  let’s do  it’)  will drive developments ahead  of  proper ethical consideration  of their  propriety (Polkinghorn  2000). In this paper  several ethical  issues related  to  modern  biotechnology,  key ethical principles  and guidelines  on  how to address the  ethical  issues  related to  modern  biotechnology will be discussed.

ETHICAL ISSUES 
Basic categories  of  moral or  ethical concerns regarding modern  biotechnology fall into two  classes: intrinsic  and  extrinsic  (Comstock 2000;  Hamid  2000).

EXTRINSIC CONCERNS

Extrinsic  objection  refers to  the  concerns regarding  the  application  of  the technologies such  as the possible risks  of  different application  of biotechnology, consumer’s  right and  patenting issues.  All  these  issues need  to  be addressed as  they  have  far-reaching  consequences  on the  safety  of  human, environment and society.

ENVIRONMENTAL  CONCERNS
GMOs are ‘novel’ products which have the potential  to reduce or  change nature’s biodiversity  (BABAS 1999; Phillips  1994; Third World Network 1995) or  to upset the  balance of  nature  perhaps  in unintended ways  (FAO  2001).   For example, the environmentalists are  concerned about  the possibility  of  GM  crops having herbicide or  insecticide  resistance  to cross-pollinate  with  wild or  related species, and  unintentionally  create  hard-to-eradicate  super-weeds respectively  (Hails 2000; Kaiser 1999). There  is also  concern  on  the  possibility  of  horizontal gene transfer of  transgenic DNA  and the  potential  to  create  new viruses and bacteria that cause diseases  (Hails  2000; Phillips 1994; Ho  1998/1999).  Certain genetic alteration  in animal or  plant  pathogens  have  led to  enhance  virulence  and increased resistance  to  pesticides  and antibiotics (NAS  1987)  and the  potential of  GMOs to harm non-target organisms have been reported (Hails 2000; Goldberg & Tjaden  1990;  Ho 1998/1999).
On the  other hand,  the producers of  GMOs  claimed that  their  products did  not harm  the  environment but the fact that the  risk assessment studies  were carried  out  by  those with  vested interests,  the results have been  questioned. At the moment,  the  focus of  scientists everywhere  has been  on  the  development  of new biotechnology  products.  Little efforts have been  spent  on  independent risk assessment studies other than  those  carried out by  the producers. There is a need  for  more  comprehensive and  long term studies  on  the  impact of GMOs  on the  environment.

SOCIOECONOMY
The  social impacts  of  biotechnology  in  agriculture and  food production  have been  classified  into three  major categories  (Thompson  1997; BABAS 1999): 

1.   Impacts  on small farms. The  most debated ethical issue  in  this  context concerns  the  possibility  of  market monopoly  by  big companies  and threatening  the survival of  small  farms.

2.  Impacts on  the  economies of  developing countries. Many  authors have forecast serious  impacts on rural economies  of the  developing countries with  a  redistribution  of  benefits from small to  large and betteroff  farmers,  according  to  the  same  pattern  predicted  for  the industrialized world.

3.  Impact on  scientific  community.  Many authors have  predicted that increasing commercialization of science would shift  the focus of research from  publicly beneficial  objectives  to more profitable corporate activities. These raised ethical  concerns about scientific purity,  the social function of  science  and public  trusts in  scientists (Thompson  1997). However, these concerns  are not restricted to food biotechnology.

Some of these  concerns have  become realities.  It is  common knowledge that most of  the  commercialized GM crops  were  dominated  by  a few  giant companies  based in  developed countries  and many  scientists are receiving grants from  industries.   These  situations need  to  addressed  by  governing bodies  at the international  and   national levels  to  make sure  the  benefits  of modern  biotechnology  products  be made accessible  to all regardless  of  economic status  and the scientific  purity  of  research  is  maintained.

SCIENTIFIC  UNCERTAINTIES
 Scientists do  not  agree about the possible  consequences of  genetic engineering to  ecosystems, health  and environment  (van  Dommelen  1999) while  several others  have  acknowledged the  possible  risks  of  GMOs  to human health and environment (Fagan   2000; Manual for Assessing  Ecological & Human Health of  Genetically  Modified  Organisms 1998;  Ho  2001).  Some  analysts have  also recognized the inadequacies of  scientific risk  assessment  as a mean  of  predicting and  assessing  the likely  consequences of new technologies (Van  Dommeln 1996;  Wynne  1992; Stirling 2000).  According to  Wynne (2002),  the institutionalized  expressions  of  the  precautionary  principle  explicitly accommodate recognition  of scientific uncertainty as a problem - ‘where  there  is scientific  uncertainty,  the  precautionary  principle  may  be  applied’  (UK Government 2001). This principle  recognize the  possible  need to  intervene  to protect the  environment or  health in  cases  when  there is  scientific uncertainty about  the harmful  effects of  whatever  process  in  question. This is  because the ‘theoretical harm’ of GMOs  release  into the environment, if  it  did occur,  would be  very  extensive, perhaps  delayed,  costly  and  difficult or impossible to  remedy (Heinemann  1997; Ho 1998/1999; Epstein  1998).

Looking  at the  endless divisive  debate  and  limited  independent information  on  the safety of  GMOs  worldwide,  these  scientific  uncertainties  are real  and need  to  be addressed  in  a  realistic manner.  This  can  be done by  first  of all acknowledging  the existence  of  scientific  uncertainties followed  by  giving independent risk assessment studies  the  same  priority  as  product development studies.

CONSUMER’S  RIGHT TO FOOD  SAFETY  AND  INFORMATION 
Basic  consumer  claims  concerning GM  food are about the  rights  to health   to be informed  and to choose (BABAS  1999).   The  first  one  refers to food  safety and the  right of  consumers to  have  their  health  protected from possible  hazards derived from eating GM food.  Three  main  areas of  concerns area: toxicity, allergenicity  and nutritional  value.  The  second issue  is  the  right of  consumers to  know the  information  about  the  foods  offered to  them (mainly  the  natural  or GM character of food products and their  composition) so that they  can make  an informed  choice.  This freedom  is important  because there are food  related religious  or cultural belief  such  as  the  halal (Muslim dietary  rule)  and kosher (Jewish dietary  rule) practices, as  well  as  vegetarians.

PATENTING 
Some of  the issues  in  patenting  of  GMOs  is that patenting which allows big corporations  to  have  monopoly  of genetically  modified plants  and animals violates  the  sanctity  of  life  (Uzogara 2000).  Many  critics  also  oppose the  fact that seeds are  now  regarded as  propriety products, moreover  with  the  ‘terminator gene’ technology which  renders the seeds  sterile  (Koch  1998).  The  farmers are force  to  buy  new  seeds  each year  from multinational companies  instead of sowing seeds from  previous years’ harvest.

INTRINSIC CONCERNS  

Intrinsic objection alleged that the process  of  modern  biotechnology  is objectionable  in itself.  This  belief is  associated with the  unnaturalness  claim, changing nature  and to  play ‘God’.  People’s beliefs  about nature  play a role in their  evaluation  of the products of biotechnology  (BABAS 1999).   They  embody values  and prescriptions  about what is  morally  right or wrong to  do  to  the natural world. The argument is  as  follows: ‘Nature and all that is natural is valuable  and good  in itself;  all  forms of biotechnology are unnatural  in  that they go  against and  interfere  with  nature,  particularly  in  the  crossing  of  natural species boundaries’.  In  some  cases the general  moral  concerns  include a religious dimension when  they are accompanied by an  underlying set  of religious beliefs and principles  concerning the  relationships  between  God, nature  and human beings  (BABAS 1999).  The  central  problem underlying biotechnology  is not just its  short term benefits  and long term drawbacks, but the  overall attempt to ‘control’ living nature  on an  erroneous  mechanistic view (Batalion 2000).   Many religions  does not allow  unrestricted interference with life  such  as  genetic engineering (Epstein 1998).  In  Islam for  example, scientific research  is encouraged in order  to  understand   natural phenomenon and  the  universe, and  to  observe the  signs of  Allah’s  glory  and ultimately  to  find the  truth  (Hajj  Mustafa 2001). However, not everything that is  applicable is  necessarily  applicable,  it is important to  consider fully the  purpose and any harmful effect  towards  human, environment and society and must be in line with the rules  of Shari’ah   (9th FiqhMedical Seminar 2002;  Hajj Mustafa 2000). Issues of   halal products and sources of  genes  are also  important for  the Muslims  and the  second issue, for the vegetarians  too.

KEY  ETHICAL PRINCIPLES 
There are many ethical traditions or  principles proposed by philosophers.  Spier (2002) proposed  that  ethical traditions can  be  classified into two broad divisions: secular and spiritual. The  secular (western) division composed of  the  many ethical or  moral  philosophy theories  or  traditions available while spiritual   refers to  the  religion. Nicholas (2000)  suggested  two strand of  thinking  around  ethics and life  sciences: bioethics  and environmental ethics. Each  strand  of  thinking highlights and  frame  issues in related  but different ways.
Majority  of  philosophers  believe  that there  is no  single  principle  or tradition that should determine our conduct  or the  making of policies (Nicholas 2000). More than one  approach is needed to deal  with  the range of issues raised by  genetic  modification. The  BABAS report by  EFB  Task Group  on  Public Perception  of  Biotechnology (1999), The  Nutfield Council  on Bioethics (1999), Comstock (2000) and Thomas  (2001),  recommended the use  of  at  least three different theories  to  make  decision on GMOs related issues.  The  three  most common  theories  or principles  relevant  to  GMOs  are  the  rights  theory, utilitarianism and  the  theory  of  justice. Nicholas (2000) also  suggested  the  use of  those  theories under the  bioethics  branch.  Nutfield Council  on Bioethics (1999), and Thomas  (2001)  also highlighted the need  to  consider environmental ethics as  well.  Another  important principle  that should be considered  is the Precautionary Principle that  have  been incorporated into  the  Rio Declaration as Principle 15 and  have  been rectified by  most  countries (BABAS 1999;   Nutfield Council on  Bioethics  1999). Besides the earlier  mentioned theories  and principles, another important  tradition that need to be  seriously considered is the  religious or  spiritual aspects  and cultural values of  people  in certain  country  (Gunn  & Tudhope 2001; Hamid 2000). Some of the principles which are relevant to GMOs are described  below:

RIGHTS  THEORY 
The  basis  of  this  theory: always  act so  that you  treat human  beings as autonomous individuals, and  not as mere means to  an  end (Comstock  2000). It refers  to the  right of  an  individual to  make  choices about their own life, and not to  be  subjected to the  imposition of  others. Some  of  the  earlier right theorists  are John Locke  and  Thomas  Jefferson (The  Internet  Encyclopedia  of  Philosophy). Beyleveld and Kinderlerer (1995) suggested the use of  the  ethical standards in the  international  human  rights conventions (which  are  part of international law), which  has  been  accepted  by  very  widespread consensus  worldwide, at  the political or  regulatory level. There has  been  many criticisms  of  the rights  theory too  whereby  the  common thread is that  rights  doctrines  are in some way excessively individualistic  (Stanford Encyclopedia of  Philosophy).

THEORIES  OF  JUSTICE 
Theories  of  justice such as  utilitarian,  liberitarian, communitarian or egalitarian are  engaged in various ways with  the question  of the basis on  which  to  distribute resources-on  the  basis of  need,  effort,  contribution,  merit,  or  the  free market (Nicholas  2000). One of the most  influential philosopher of the  late 20th century is  John  Rawls, who  develop his theory  of  justice  by  using both  utilitarian  and liberty  principle  (Kay  1997).  According to  Oyeshile (2008),  the  plausibility  of Rawls'  maximin principle lies  in the fact  that social  harmony is indispensible inmaintaining social order. The society  has  to  operate with  such principles of justice  that  cater for the well being  of  the  less fortunate  members  of  the  society. Oyeshille (2008)  further  argued  that the  problems with that principle  is not withstanding but it is  a useful axiom for the egalitarian society.

CONSEQUENTIALISM  AND  UTILITARIANISM
Consequentialism  argues that one knows what is  the appropriate action,  not  on the basis of universal  duty,  but  rather  on  the basis of the outcomes  of one’s actions (Thomas  2000).  This approach is frequently  assumed in  discussions of biotechnology,  such  as those around  risk  and benefit  -  it  is the consequences of the  use  of  a  biotechnology  that  are  seen  as  important,  rather  than  any  preexisting understanding of  one’s  duty  or  the  appropriateness of  maintaining a given set  of  relationships. Thus, a consequentialist would  not  be  concerned with  moving genes across  species  per  se, but would judge  the  appropriateness of that  decision  on  the basis of the  possible or  likely  outcomes  of doing  so. Although consequentilism  is one  of  the  most influential moral theories that  can guide  our actions, some  claim that  consequentialism lacks  moral values.  Mc Elwee  (2009) argued  that consequentilism limits itself  to  claims expressed in terms of  reasons of  action  or  the  comparative value  of actions,  and eschews altogether the traditional moral categories  of  wrongness, permissibility  and obligation.

PRECAUTIONARY  PRINCIPLE 
This  principle  can  be  thought of  as a simple  welfare  theory (Nicholas  2000). In light  of the unknown and  unpredictable consequences and risks  of biotechnology, opponents argue  that  regulatory  policy should approach  biotechnology  from the  stance  of  the  precautionary  principle.  With  the  precautionary  principle  as the  default mode of regulation, regulatory policy should evaluate biotechnology for its  human health,  animal health, environmental,  social, economic, cultural, ethical, and communitarian impacts (Draft Negotiating Text 1998). In  other words, opponents  of biotechnology  insist  that  the regulation  of biotechnology  be a technology  assessment, not a product regulation.
The  precautionary  principle  has  four components  while  others  argue that the  precautionary principle  must be strengthened  by adding four additional components (BNA 1999; Kershen  1999):
1.  Taking precaution  in the  face  of scientific  uncertainty. 
2.   Exploring alternatives to harmful actions. 
3.   Placing  the burden  of proof  on  proponents of an  activity  or  product rather than on  victims  or potential victims of  the  activity. 
4.   Using  democratic processes to carry  out  and enforce the principle, including  the  public  right to  informed  consent. 
5.   Precaution  must be  the  default  mode  of  all technological decision making. 
6.  Past   technological  decisions  must be  re-examined and  reformed, if needed. 
7. Precaution demands  that the mode  of regulation fits  the  scope  of  the threat. 
8.  Society  must identify  and  accommodate  itself  to  broad  patterns in ecological  processes.

 I strongly propose  that this  principle be  adopted in the present situation whereby adequate and independent risk assessments are  still limited. If  sound, complete  and independent risk  assessment studies are  fully  available in the future, then the  use  of  this principle  can be  made  optional.

ENVIRONMENTAL  ETHICS 
Environmental ethics  draws deeply  on our  understandings of  ‘nature’  and of ‘creation’, for which  every  culture has its  myths and worldviews (Nicholas, 2000).  This is an  area  where,  in contrast to  ‘bioethics’,  there  is a significant  and explicit  input  from spiritual/ religious  traditions. Generally,  two broad approaches of  environmental  ethics can  be discerned  (Nicholas  2000). Some approaches are human-centred;  the environment is  valued for what  it can provide  for humans, and  we  protect  it  so that  the  resources  will  be  there  for  our  use  and  that  of  future generations.  In  the   ecocentric  approach, the  environment is valued not  for what it  can  give  us, but because  it has  intrinsic  value, separate  from  any value  that  we may give  it.  This  is  a position  held by some  secular  environmental  movements, but the same value is  expressed in  some  Christian  traditions that see the  value of creation as coming from God,  with  humans  merely custodians of it.
Both the  ecocentric and  human-centred approaches can accommodate a position that  recognises  that humans  are not  outside  the  natural world, but  are part of  the  biosphere, that  actions we  take  that have  an impact  on the  environment will also  affect  humans, and that  our own  health  and survival  requires us to attend to  the  health  and sustainability  of  the  planet. This orientation has  been captured  in  recent  decades by  the concept  of Gaia, which  is used  both  as  a scientific  theory and as a  spiritual concept.  The  ethical implications  of the  Gaia concept  can  be interpreted in  different  ways  either  as the consequential imperative  that we  must  care  for the  environment to  ensure our own survival (which  we value),  or  as the  responsibility  or duty to  care  for something entrusted to our  care  or  over  which  we  have some  power,  and  of  which  we  are  a  part.

RELIGION 
The  spiritual division  refers to  religion or  the  belief  of  individual or  people. Kershen  (1999)  emphasized  that  the acceptance and  success of biotechnology will be  based  on  the  ideological beliefs and the  cultural values adopted by individual human  beings  who, in  turn  will  shape  societal beliefs and  values. There  are principles  or guidelines  on  how  should  we live  and what is the  right thing to do  in most religions.  In Islam for example,  the  sources  of  rules are  first and foremost is  the  al-Qur’an, followed by  the  sunnah or hadith (traditions  of the Prophet  Muhammad)  (Hamid 2000). In  facing  a problem that is  not answered in a straightforward  manner by earlier two sources, ijma’  (consensus)  have  to  be sought collectively from  the views  of mujtahid (Muslim jurists who are competent enough  to deduce  precise inferences regarding  the commandment from  the alQur’an  and sunnah). The  use  of Qawaid Fiqhiyyah  (Islamic  Legal Maxim) to achieve  the  syariah’s objective  is also  useful and relevant to  strengthen the earlier  verdict  (Mohamad Akram  2006).

ADDRESSING  ETHICAL  ISSUES  OF  MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY 

Ethically   justifiable  conclusions  depend on  two  kinds  of judgements: factual (based  on  scientific evidence and  theories), and  ethical (based  on  the best available moral  philosophy theories) (Comstock  2000;  Thomas 2001).  Decisions on  what is right to  do  will be  made  after  balancing the benefits of  a technology like  genetic  engineering  with  its potential harms. However, ethical decisions concerning  genetic modification  has proved  to be  very  challenging because  it brings together  so many ethical aspects of our  life  that include personal,  medical, environmental,  political,  business,  animal and  scientific  ethics  besides  religion.
A  method for addressing ethical  issues related  to  modern biotechnology as recommended  by Comstock  (2000)  with  several modifications is suitable  for  use  in  Malaysia. He suggested  working methodically  through  a series  of questions:

WHAT IS THE  HARM ENVISAGED? 
Describe  briefly  (a)  the  harm  or potential harm;  (b)  who  are the  stakeholders, that  is, all  of  the persons  and non-persons (animals,  ecosystems, other  nonhuman entities) who  may  be harmed; (c) the extent to  which these  stakeholders  will be harmed; and (d) the  distribution of harms  (are  those at risk of  being harmed  the same or  different  from those who  may  benefit?).
A  technology is acceptable if  it  creates  an  acceptable set  of consequences for  every  member  of society  (Fischhoff  1999).  So  in  order  to determine  acceptable  risk-benefit tradeoffs, it may  be  useful  to  ask or survey  a properly chosen  sample of citizens  to  study their attitude  and acceptance towards the  tradeoffs.  The  Malaysian stakeholders in  the  Klang Valley for  example  were more  supportive  of  GM  palm oil (modified to  reduce  its  saturated  fat) and GM insulin compared  to GM soybean  (resistant  to herbicide) (Latifah et  al. 2009). In Islam, the analysis  of  risk-benefit related to  modern biotechnology   is  provided under the Maqasid Shariah principle.

WHAT INFORMATION DO WE HAVE? 
Sound ethical  judgments go hand-in-hand  with  thorough  understanding  of  the scientific  facts.  In a given  case,  we  may need to ask: (a) Is  the scientific  information about harm being presented reliable, or is  it fact, hearsay, or  opinion?  (b)  What information  do we  not know  that  we  should know  before  making the  decision?
In  the  case  of  modern  biotechnology  products, there  is limited information on  their safety.  This scenario  stresses the  need for  more  balanced approach  by  scientists and governments in giving equal  importance to independent risk assessment  studies besides product development.

WHAT ARE THE OPTIONS? 
In assessing the various  courses  of  action,  emphasize  creative problem-solving, seeking to find  win-win  alternatives  in  which  everyone’s  interests are  protected. Here  we  must  identify (a)  what objectives each stakeholder wants  to obtain; (b) how many methods are available  by which  to achieve  those objectives;  (c) what are  the advantages  and  disadvantages  of each alternative? 
In  case of conflict  between  several  options,  Josephson  Institute (Svatos 2000)  recommended that the option which  presents  an  ethical value  (such as trustwortiness, respectful,  responsible, fair,  caring, civic  virtue)  is chosen compared  to  non-ethical values (such  as  money, power).   For  example, the company  Pioneer  Hi-Breed has  chosen an  ethical  option by  withdrawing its products,  GM peanuts  (which contain a gene  from  Brazilnut)  which  has  been found to be  allergenic despite  having invested  much money on  the development of  the  GM  peanuts (Nordlee  et al. 1996).

WHAT ETHICAL PRINCIPLES SHOULD GUIDE US?
 Since ethical theorists  are  divided  about which  theories  is  best,  and  each  principle has its own  strengths  and  weaknesses, I  agree with  the  suggestion  by Comstock (2000)  to  use at least  three  most  common principles relevant  to modern biotechnology, one by  one.  Should  all three  principles converge  on  the  same conclusion, then  there  is  good reason to  think that the  conclusion  is  morally justifiable. 
However, I strongly  recommended  the  use  of  additional theories/ principles  such  as  environmental ethics  as highlighted by the Nutfield Council on Bioethics (1999) and Thomas  (2001),  and the Precautionary Principle (BABAS 1999;  Nutfield Council  on Bioethics 1999). I also  strongly  agree  with  the proposition  by Gunn  and Tudhope (2001) and Hamid (2000) that  the religious or spiritual aspects  and cultural values of  people  need  to  be  seriously  considered especially in multi-ethnic and  multi-religion country such  as Malaysia. 
In  Malaysia  since  the  majority  of  the  citizens are Muslims  and the official  religion  is Islam, Divine  law should be  used as  the  moral basis for  law  and society  (Hamid 2000;  Majdah  2001).  The  prohibitory  status  of  modern biotechnology  applications  should be  studied case  by  case  and in line with  the Islamic  principles.  In Islam, the  sources of  rules  are first and foremost is the  alQur’an, followed by the sunnah or  hadith (traditions  of the Prophet Muhammad) (Hamid 2000).  In facing a problem  that is not answered  in  a straightforward manner  by  earlier  two sources,  ijma’  (consensus) have  to be  sought collectively from  the views  of mujtahid  (Muslim jurists  who  are  competent  enough  to  deduce precise inferences regarding the  commandment from the al-Qur’an  and sunnah). The last  source  of  guideline  for the Muslims  is aq’il (reasoning).  Issues  of halal is also  very important for  Muslims (BABAS 1999). The  acceptance  of  modern biotechnology applications by other major religions in Malaysia such  as  Buddha, Hindu and Christian  should  also  be considered. 

HOW DO WE REACH MORAL CLOSURE? 
Does the  decision  we have  reached allows  all stakeholders either to  participate in  the  decision  or to  have  their  views  represented?  If  a compromise  solution  is deemed necessary  in  order  to  manage  otherwise intractable  differences,  has the compromise been reached  in  ways that  has  allowed all interested parties to have their  interests articulated, understood, and  considered?  If  so, then  the  decision is justifiable  on  ethical grounds. 
For example before the start of large scale production  of a  biotechnology product or even  better at the  product development stage in  Malaysia, the views of  relevant stakeholders  such  as  the representatives of  the  consumers,  the industries, the religious  scholars  of  major  religions  in Malaysia,  policy makers and the scientists  be  sought. If  all stakeholders  agree  on  a certain  decision whether to  support, reject or delay  decision  for certain valid reasons  such as to gather more  information, the  relevant authorities  in  Malaysia have  to  abide  by the  decisions. 

CONCLUSION 
Modern biotechnology  if  applied  responsibly,  have  vast potential  to  benefit mankind  and the environment. At the  same  time,  the speed  of  genetic  change  by genetic engineering  may  represent  a  new potential  and unexpected  impact  on biosphere (FAO  2000). It  is not possible  to  make sweeping generalizations about modern  biotechnology; each  application  must  be  fully  analyzed on  a case-bycase  basis. Through  complete  and transparent  assessments (scientifically  and ethically) of  modern  biotechnology applications, and recognition  of  their short and  long term  implications  towards   human,  environment and society  and acknowledging scientific   uncertainties  and taking  possible precautionary measures, only  then, the  controversies  can  be  less contentious  and more constructive, and the  full benefits  of  modern biotechnology may  be maximized. Ethical guidelines  regarding the  status  of  modern biotechnology applications in Malaysia should be  in  line  with the Islamic  principles as well  as the consideration of  the  acceptance  by other  major  religions in Malaysia.

REFRENCE : 
LATIFAH AMIN
MALIM  Bil.  10 (2009)
Pusat  Pengajian  Umum 
Universiti Kebangsaan  Malaysia


Share:

Perspectives: Ethical Issues In Biotechnology

Scientists have used biotechnology for centuries to enhance the production, availability and quality of food and medicine. Some conventional biotechnology techniques that has been documented for decades includes the use of microorganism in fermentation to make bread, wine or applying rennin to make cheese. However in recent times, the development of modern biotechnology has involved powerful new techniques better known as Molecular Biology that allows scientists to tackle the previous goals with more finesse and speed such as recombinant DNA and genetic engineering, cell fusion, bioprocess and structurally-based molecular design.

Given that the technology is new, has immense potential, is rapidly developing, and can be applied to all living beings, it can be used for beneficial purposes but there are also risks. It is a sophisticated technology that needs advanced laboratory facilities and particular environmental conditions that require investment. Modern biotechnology has been particularly successfully used and applied in food, agriculture, medicine and pharmacy.

Because modern biotechnology is still considered as a new technology and the advancement in these areas have been so rapid, it has been the object of some doubts, fears, concerns as well as an intense and divisive debate worldwide on the potential risks to human health, the environment and society. These concerns has in many countries given rise to ethical considerations in the practice and development of biotechnology 

Bioethics is the study of ethical principles and values that guide behavior and policy in biomedicine and other life science related disciplines.

Bioethics in biotechnology asks questions such as:

Is biotechnology morally good or bad?

Is working to create biotechnology morally right or wrong?

What ethics is not

- Personal beliefs
- What polls and surveys reveal
- The law
- Religious beliefs

What ethics is

- Justified principles and values
        Convincing argument
        Pragmatic payoff
- Values that have appeal outside your own group or nation
- Character and virtues that produce trust

Why ethics matters

- Ethics leads the law
- Ethics sometimes is all there is
- Ethics is what people care about when it comes to medicine and biotechnology!
        - Duty to protect patients and public health
        - Economic incentives are not enough and.                  may well be mistrusted
Those who pursue health have a higher moral standard to meet.

Basic categories of moral or ethical concerns regarding modern biotechnology fall into two classes: intrinsic and extrinsic.

EXTRINSIC CONCERNS
Extrinsic objection refers to the concerns regarding the application of the technologies such as the possible risks of different application of biotechnology, consumer’s right and patenting issues. All these issues need to be addressed as they have far-reaching consequences on the safety of human, environment and society.

INTRINSIC CONCERNS
Intrinsic objection alleged that the process of modern biotechnology is objectionable in itself. This belief is associated with the unnaturalness claim, changing nature and to play ‘God’. People’s beliefs about nature play a role in their evaluation of the products of biotechnology . They embody values and prescriptions about what is morally right or wrong to do to the natural world. The argument is as follows: ‘Nature and all that is natural is valuable and good in itself; all forms of biotechnology are unnatural in that they go against and interfere with nature, particularly in the crossing of natural species boundaries’.


In some cases the general moral concerns include a religious dimension when they are accompanied by an underlying set of religious beliefs and principles concerning the relationships between God, nature and human beings. The central problem underlying biotechnology is not just its short term benefits and long term drawbacks, but the overall attempt to ‘control’ living nature on an erroneous mechanistic view. Many religions does not allow unrestricted interference with life such as genetic engineering. In Islam for example, scientific research is encouraged in order to understand natural phenomenon and the universe, and to observe the signs of Allah’s glory and ultimately to find the truth.

However, not everything that is applicable is necessarily applicable, it is important to consider fully the purpose and any harmful effect towards human, environment and society and must be in line with the rules of Shari’ah. Issues of halal products and sources of genes are also important for the Muslims and for the vegetarians too.

KEY ETHICAL PRINCIPLES
There are many ethical traditions or principles proposed by philosophers. Spier (2002) proposed that ethical traditions can be classified into two broad divisions: secular and spiritual. The secular (western) division composed of the many ethical or moral philosophy theories or traditions available while spiritual refers to the religion. Nicholas (2000) suggested two strand of thinking around ethics and life sciences: bioethics and environmental ethics. Each strand of thinking highlights and frame issues in related but different ways.

Majority of philosophers believe that there is no single principle or tradition that should determine our conduct or the making of policies. More than one approach is needed to deal with the range of issues raised by genetic modification. The BABAS report by EFB Task Group on Public Perception of Biotechnology (1999), The Nutfield Council on Bioethics (1999), Comstock (2000) and Thomas (2001), recommended the use of at least three different theories to make decision on GMOs related issues. The three most common theories or principles relevant to GMOs are the rights theory, utilitarianism and the theory of justice.

Nicholas (2000) also suggested the use of those theories under the bioethics branch. Nutfield Council on Bioethics (1999), and Thomas (2001) also highlighted the need to consider environmental ethics as well. Another important principle that should be considered is the Precautionary Principle that have been incorporated into the Rio Declaration as Principle 15 and have been rectified by most countries. Besides the earlier mentioned theories and principles, another important tradition that need to be seriously considered is the religious or spiritual aspects and cultural values of people in certain country. 

ADDRESSING ETHICAL ISSUES OF MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY
Ethically justifiable conclusions depend on two kinds of judgements: factual (based on scientific evidence and theories), and ethical (based on the best available moral philosophy theories). Decisions on what is right to do will be made after balancing the benefits of a technology like genetic engineering with its potential harms. However, ethical decisions concerning genetic modification has proved to be very challenging because it brings together so many ethical aspects of our life that include personal, medical, environmental, political, business, animal and scientific ethics besides religion.

A method for addressing ethical issues related to modern biotechnology as recommended by many experts with several modifications is working methodically through a series of questions such as:

WHAT IS THE HARM ENVISAGED? 

WHAT INFORMATION DO WE HAVE? 

WHAT ARE THE OPTIONS? 

WHAT ETHICAL PRINCIPLES SHOULD GUIDE US?

HOW DO WE REACH MORAL CLOSURE?

CONCLUSION
Modern biotechnology if applied responsibly, have vast potential to benefit mankind and the environment. At the same time, the speed of genetic change by genetic engineering may represent a new potential and unexpected impact on biosphere (FAO 2000). It is not possible to make sweeping generalizations about modern biotechnology; each application must be fully analyzed on a case-by case basis. 

Through complete and transparent assessments (scientifically and ethically) of modern biotechnology applications, and recognition of their short and long term implications towards human, environment and society and acknowledging scientific uncertainties and taking possible precautionary measures, only then, the controversies can be less contentious and more constructive, and the full benefits of modern biotechnology may be maximized.



Share:

INTRODUCTION TO PERSPECTIVES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY


 Introduction 

Plant, animal and microbes have been used by humans for nutrition and development of products for consumption such as beer or bread. Understanding of Physical phenomenon has allowed the invention of different types of electronic gadgets, machines, devices and altogether these have been used to increase the efficiency of human activities. Technological advancement has also allowed him to exploit plant, animal and microbial wealth to provide products of commercial or pharmaceutical importance. All these activities (research and development) fall under the big umbrella of biotechnology. In simpler word, Biotechnology is the summation of activities involving technological tools and living organism in such a way that it will enhance the efficiency of production. 


In simpler terms Biotechnology can be Defined as  ‘’Technology that is derived from living things and their natural processes’’.
General Categories
• Medical Biotechnology-Vaccines, diagnostics, pharmaceuticals
• Industrial Biotechnology - Enzymes and microorganisms for processing products
• Environmental Biotechnology - Microorganisms for bioremediation
• Agricultural Biotechnology – Enhanced crops, feed and fertilizers
Medical Biotechnology
• Diagnostics
• Pharmaceuticals

Medical Biotechnology
• Diagnostics
• Pharmaceuticals– Antibiotics, vaccines, chiral molecules etc
• Gene Therapy
• Vaccines
• Xenograft and transplants etc..
 • Antibody production – Immunoglobins 
• Recombinant protein- e.g Insulin

Agricultural Biotechnology
•Enhanced Plants– Genetically Modified Plants (GMO)
– Insect Resistance
– Herbicide Resistance
– Increased Nutrition
•Enhanced Animals characteristics

Environmental Biotechnology
- Microorganisms for bioremediation
• Miniature toxin demolition machines
- Green technology for decontamination
• Plants also take toxins: Phytomediation

Lastly we also have industrial biotechnology which uses basic and advanced biological concepts to produce arrays of industrially important goods and services.


              IMPACT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology is producing a scientific revolution. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in biotechnology, the application of genetic engineering to practical human health problem. The first and perhaps most obvious commercial application of genetic engineering was the introduction of gene encoding clinically important proteins into bacteria.

Human insulin: the first commercially produced genetic engineered product.
The human insulin extracted from these bacterial cells, called recombinant human insulin, can be given to diabetic patient.

With similar approach, other medically important proteins as well as vaccines are now manufactured .

Biotechnology is revolutionizing agriculture. It increases yields and resistance to pests, improving nutritional values, and producing animals or crops with desirable traits.
For instance, In 1999, over half of the 72 million acres planted with soybeans in US were planted with seeds genetically modified to be herbicide resistant,
• so less tillage has been needed, soil erosion lessened
• cultivation of crops become cheaper and more efficient
• the food cost less to get it to your table !

The real promise of agricultural biotechnology is to produce genetically modified crops with desirable traits that can directly benefit the consumer.

The new and emerging tools of biotechnology offer significant opportunities to enhance agricultural productivity, food and nutritional security, and environmental quality worldwide. Some countries have already developed and commercialized genetically engineered transgenic crops. Many developing countries have initiated biotechnology research and development programs to benefit from the new tools of biotechnology. Several developing countries are also importing products of biotechnology.

The use, deployment and importation of biotechnology products, however, have raised worldwide a number of regulatory issues related to risk/benefit analysis associated with biodiversity, the environment, and human health. The issue of environmental and food safety risk-assessment and management becomes increasingly critical as we move along the development continuum from laboratory research to research field trials and large-scale commercial releases of biotechnology products

To ensure that benefits are maximized and risks are minimized, nations at all levels of development are addressing the environmental and health aspects by implementing biosafety guidelines for the safe use of genetic engineering and its products. In addition, research partnerships between developed and developing nations are stimulating considerations and development of biosafety guidelines/laws that fit with international biosafety treaties and agreements.



Share:

E-COMMERCE: How to Leverage as a Mini Importer


THE BEGINNING OF THE END FOR E-COMMERCE BUSINESS?

It broke my heart that KONGA, the second biggest online market in Nigeria is currently on the verge of collapsing in business and they are desperately in need of a buyer in order to sell off the company and go completely out of business!


And as if that was not heartbreaking enough, OLX, one of the pioneer and front runner company in the e-commerce business in Africa is Shutting down its office in Nigeria with immediate effect!

This got me to the bones. My heart bled.

And to cap it all of, EFRITIN , the fastest growing e-commerce company in Nigeria has officially collapsed and in the process of a round table discussion with investors who are desperately in need of a lifeline to recoup their money.

In the process of these sad events, Over Thirteen thousand(13,000) direct workers have lost their jobs and in dire need of a thread to hang onto.

These over 13,000 workers will automatically join the already flooded Nigerian Labour market which already has over 11.3million jobless and under - employed individuals scratching through the barrels to get a job.

 That's not the end of this nightmare still.

With this, again, shareholders, investors and relevant stakeholders in these failed companies must be licking their wounds right now, and maybe regretting and blaming themselves for ever investing in their money in these said companies in the first place.

You know what that means for fellow entrepreneurs entrepreneurs still in the industry? It will create a ripple effect in the system. 

Investors will become even more afraid and extremely cautious of how they tend to put in their money into raising start up businesses.

There will be great panic in the venture capital industry, which will do more harm than good in the long run when it comes to finding capitalists to invest in your start up ventures.

In as much it looks all gloom and unfortunate for everyone concerned but the truth is - there are lessons to be learnt from this very unfortunate occurrences.  There are always lessons to learn when unfortunate situations occur.

You see, Dear entrepreneur, business is all about SALES and PROFIT MARGIN, and Profit and Sales is a game, a game of NUMBER.

Forget about the 10milllion naira being put into Adverts on TV and radio.

Forget about the 5million naira being used to rent a paparazzi office in Lekki.

Don't put much emphasis on employing an Harvard business school graduate to come become the operational manager of your company.

Don't get too much satisfaction in being able to raise 10million dollars from investors to scale your business. It's good but that's not enough.

You know what you should care about?

Care more about SALES

Worry more about PROFIT

Forget the Fame, check the figures.

Because at the end of the day, that's what really matters.

Whether we don't know or not.....

Olx has folded up....

Konga has been sold to another company

Jumia is managing to thrive....

Am going to be explaining why?

But the lesson is that this is the time for small importers to rise up and take-up the market

Why big e-commerce companies in Nigeria are folding up.......

The reasons those businesses are folding up is because of the emergence of personal online stores and websites. 
Those companies if you understand how they work almost everything they sell is not owned by them, they have a price agreement from their suppliers then add their own profit on it before placing it on their websites. So from the profit they make they pay staff salaries, cost of ware housing and other over head running cost. What they have are two things a storage warehouse and an online marketing platform/website used for marketing products.

With the emergence of massive digital individual trainings and cheap website, those customers do not take their products to those companies any more they sell directly online themselves and supply the customers themselves building a one on one relationship directly branding themselves and their business. This is what caused the problem and nothing else. 
What those failing companies would have done is to establish a very strategic and functional purchasing department locally and internationally, that can search and enter into agreement with companies of products they sell at affordable prices so that they remain in business making good marginal profits using their already branded business name.

#BOSS

Share:

WEEK TRENDING

EMAIL NEWSLETTER

Featured Post

World's Most Expensive Structures

CountDown: The 30 most costly structures on the planet Ponder which world-well known structures cost the most cash to build? From super-...

Labels

Recent Posts